This year, formally ended with the global financial crisis that began three years earlier - in 1900. In Russia, its impact, creating a tradition, first experienced the industrial sector. During the three years to close up 3 thousand enterprises which employed more than 110,000 people. Sharply reduced production levels, the stock of the largest companies declined by more than half. Russia was unable to quickly recover from this crisis, which was one of the reasons for the outbreak of the revolution in 1905.
In Russia, the year also saw the resignation of loud - Russian Finance Minister Sergei Witte Yul'evich. One of its main merits consider monetary reform in 1897, which entered history under his name. Was then set the gold standard of the ruble. As a result, the country prior to 1914 was a stable currency backed by gold. This has led to increased investor activity and an influx of foreign capital. The ruble was devalued part of the reform at the rate of two thirds, while able to avoid economic shocks. One reason for the resignation of the Witte is his unwillingness to fight with Japan, as well as its independence and intransigence.
In the U.S., in 1903 the company was founded Ford Motor Company - one of the largest auto companies in the world. That same year, Warner Brothers opened its first in Pennsylvania theater. Brothers had to work in difficult circumstances, in particular, take chairs for spectators at the funeral home. The base theater is considered the forerunner of a Cinema Concern giant Warner Bros. Now the company is a division of Time Warner.
One of the tragic events in world history - the genocide of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. April 24th power of the empire were ordered to collect all the Armenian intellectuals in Istanbul and deported. Until 1918 (according to other sources - up to 1923) killed about 1.5 million Armenians killed hundreds of thousands of Armenian architectural monuments. It was the first genocide of the XX century.
The same year New York pharmacist T. L. Williams established company Maybelline. Everything started with the manufacture for sale tools for paint eyelashes. It consisted of Vaseline and coal dust - the paint used by his younger sister, Mabel. Now the company's products represented in over 90 countries, a cosmetic brand owned by L'Oreal.
In the Soviet Union broke another crisis. At this time, grain procurement. Joseph Stalin declared the "excellent" relations with the peasantry, but the facts speak for themselves - the main indicators in agriculture is almost twice exceeded the prewar level, but the supply of grain decreased sharply to 300 million pounds instead of 430 million pounds in the previous year. By January 1928 the deficit in grain procurement close to 200 million pounds. As a result, the country has nothing to export, and hence have no means to industrialize. Bread prices in some areas jumped more than doubled. The country has introduced emergency measures: in the village sent over 30 thousand communists who were supposed to get bread on personal recognizance. Across the country, confiscating the property of farms engaged in speculation, their representatives initiating a criminal case.
This year's catch phrase was born, "Our response to Chamberlain. The slogan appeared after the publication in Pravda notes under the heading "Hello Canton!» Here is our answer to Chamberlain! "The article was a response to the note of the British Government, signed by Austen Chamberlain to stop anti-British propaganda and military support to the revolutionary government in China. In May, Britain will void the trade agreement and breaks diplomatic relations with the USSR. The reason - information leakage (you never WikiLeaks!). British diplomats have seized documents, which argued that the USSR intends to organize a world revolution and collapse the British government. The Soviets denied the authenticity of the documents, arguing that that the number of documents is theoretical in nature. In 1929, official relations were restored.
In the same year founded the Swedish concern Volvo. 14 April, drove the first automobile plant Jakob OV4. It could reach speeds of 90 km / h, engine power car was only 28 horsepower. Also based Austrian banking group Raiffeisen Zentralbank and one of the largest oilfield services companies in the world of Schlumberger.
September 1 with the invasion of German troops in Poland to start World War II. A week earlier, on Aug. 23 in Moscow between the USSR and Germany signed a nonaggression pact, known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. The views of historians are divided: some think that the pact postponed war, according to others - has its beginning. In October, begins deportation of Polish Jews in the Lublin ghetto. In the same year the Soviet Union expelled from the League of Nations - an international organization whose purpose was, inter alia, disarmament, prevention of war, collective security and the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means.
In the Soviet Union appeared Experimental Design Bureau of Artem Mikoyan, which was founded with the support of Anastas Mikoyan. Subsequently, in its walls will be created brand MiG aircraft. Artem Mikoyan was appointed deputy designer Mikhail Gurevich.
In the United States based airline US Airways. Now she is the sixth volume of air in the United States, flies to over 200 destinations.
Joseph Stalin was reduced by 70% of government guards and servants, and with it the additional cost of the party elite - from 25 to 8,000 rubles. In the same year the leader's health worsens, and he goes on vacation, out of which only returned in 1952.
In the Soviet Union launched the fifth five-year plan for the years that growth in national income was 71%, industrial output grew by 85%. Implementation of the sixth five-year follow-up was interrupted by a congress of the CPSU on the initiative of Nikita Khrushchev, who decided that the country must live by the seven-year plan. The reasons for this decision, which was subsequently deemed inexpedient, lay in the fact that the USSR had to have time to build communism in 1980.
22 July, the Kapustin Yar launch a rocket with dogs on board nicknamed Dezik and Gypsies. This is the first "dog" Space Launch. Mutts were dressed in special costumes, which were mounted sensors. Home has been successful. But after a week was held one more start, after which Dezik and naparnitsa Fox died.
This year, the Soviet Union created the Central TV studio, which later became Central Television of the USSR.
In Sweden, created by world-renowned manufacturer of packaging - the company Tetra Pak. And in China - The Agricultural Bank of China - one of the largest banks in the PRC.
This year was born one of the most famous prisoners of our time - the ex-Yukos CEO Mikhail Khodorkovsky. In the United States on November 22 assassinated President John F. Kennedy, and after a few days - and the only official suspect in the assassination of President Lee Harvey Oswald.
In the Soviet Union introduced a new administrative division - at the edges and areas of regions are divided into rural and industrial.
In space, visited the first woman cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova.
In Denmark, based shoe company ECCO. In the United States invented the first computer mouse. In the same year in the States close the prison Alcatraz. The official reason for closing - too high costs for prisoners on the island and the need for costly repairs to which you want $ 5 million. One of the most famous prison of Alcatraz - American gangster Al Capone.
In the Soviet Union - severe drought, because of which lost about a third of the grain yield. Drought similar scale would return to Russia after 35 years in 2010.
In the United States for the year was made two attempts to assassinate President Gerald Ford. A New York financial crisis. Ford blamed it bloated the city program of municipal bonds through which the city budget funds were involved. Paper each year to buy companies that were registered in the state. The same scheme eventually began to use other cities, which led to a boom in the market of municipal bonds. But because analysts had predicted that the crisis in New York could cause the collapse of the entire municipal bond market. But private banks, no matter what, the Municipality denied a loan, and the federal government - in financial support. City officials, trying to avoid bankruptcy, stop the bulk of payments from the budget. Teachers were on strike, beat out the glass on Wall Street, the police blocked traffic on the main streets of the city. But in the end the city still managed to avoid bankruptcy, including through received from the teachers' union loan of $ 150 million.
And in Britain the government has saved the local branch of the American Crysler credit for 162.5 million pounds.
But this year has been one of the best in the history of the industrial index of Dow Jones. During the year it grew by 236 percentage points, or 38.32% to 852.41 points after a poor 1974.
In the same year, created by Microsoft and Pernod Ricard.
Academician Andrei Sakharov was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
In "Black Monday" on October 19 occurred the biggest crash Dow Jones industrial index in its history - by 22,6%. This resulted in the fall of exchanges Britain, Hong Kong, Canada and Australia. In December - The sharp drop of the dollar to the lowest level ever States.
In fact, the restructuring of the USSR recognized the new state ideology after the January plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. In a country defined by the order of creation and activities of joint ventures with Soviet and foreign countries (including capitalist). The Soviet government announced the release from prison camps and 140 dissidents have stopped jamming Russian service BBC. May 1 comes into force a law on self-employment. In broadcast television out of the program "Vision" and "600 seconds".
Begins mass production of VAZ-2109 - "Nine". And the same year in the country a card system - the first time since World War II. Coupons for sugar emerged as a result of anti-alcohol campaign - in September, the sugar simply disappeared from the shelves of stores in several regions.
Year will be remembered as "defensive" incident: a 19-year resident of Germany Mathias Rouse on May 28 about 19 pm, landed his plane in Red Square next to St. Basil's Cathedral. Before that he was looking for sites thrice circled Red Square at the height of several meters. After that Mikhail Gorbachev fired the minister of national defense and several other senior military officials.
Euro before global financial markets as a settlement currency, it began to be used for cashless payments.
In August, Putin was appointed Prime Minister of Russia. A December 31, Boris Yeltsin famously said: "I'm leaving." And he resigned from his post as president, apologized for the fact that "many dreams have not come true," that "does not justify the hopes of" people who believe in what you can "jump" into a bright rich civilized future. Acting President Vladimir Putin became.
In September, a series of apartment bombings - in Buinaksk, Volgodonsk and Moscow. Killed more than 300 people.
The merger formed one of the world's largest public companies ExxonMobil. In 2009, the ranking of world's largest companies by market capitalization, FT 500, it took first place with a 336.5 billion dollars. In Russia the aircraft leasing company Ilyushin Finance Co ".
The most important events of next year, political analysts called the Duma elections and the strengthening of the presidential campaign. From next year will start the privatization program. Its first stage is designed for 2011-2013. It is expected that the sale of stakes in state-owned, will bring the budget of 1 trillion rubles. In this case, economists have previously suggested that next year the state will try to increase its presence in several industries, particularly in the banking sector.
Russia may finally join the World Trade Organization for what it has already had to make concessions on a number of economic issues. Negotiations under way for 17 years.
is experiencing the strongest concerns about future growth, the tax
burden, in particular, due to increased insurance premiums to 34%. According
to the calculations of RSPP, the tax burden on business in 2011 in a
number of branches will increase to 65-70% relative to the performance
of this year.
In the Soviet Union - severe drought, because of which lost about a third of the grain yield. Drought similar scale would return to Russia after 35 years in 2010. "
In fact, in astrology, and in nature, and in the horoscope of Russia are working cycles 12 * 3 = 36 years, not 35. Therefore, there is a real issue of massive drought in Russia in 2011. Extra Space factor confirming this guess - ingression Uranus Aries-element Fire, March 12, 2011. Drought-2011??
Gentlemen, ministers and administrative and managerial staff in Russia, I warned you. If you do not hear back, I was guilty about it. Visit the Astrological portal security, and you'll be hard to sit in their seats.
Because forewarned is forearmed.